Born  : – 1 January 1894, Kolkata

 Death  : – 4 February 1974

 Achievements  : –

“Bose-Einstein theory”, named after him a subatomic particle Boson, awarded “Padma Bhushan”

 Satyendra Nath Bose was an outstanding Indian physicist.  He is known for his significant contributions to quantum physics.  His research in quantum physics laid the foundations of “Bose-Einstein Statistics” and “Bose-Einstein Condensate” theory.  There are two types of molecules considered in physics – bosons and fermions.  ‘Boson’, the name of the great Indian scientist Satyendranath Bose, has been given to keep it indelible in physics because this great Indian scientist gave a new direction to modern physics i.e. quantum physics.  His works were appreciated by the great scientist Einstein and together with him proposed many theories.  His research in quantum physics gave the subject a new direction and many scientists who made new discoveries based on his discovery went on to win the Nobel Prize.

 Early Life  : – 

 Satyendra Nath Bose was born on 1 January 1894 in Kolkata.  His father Surendra Nath Bose was working in the engineering department of East India Railway.  Satyendra was the eldest of his seven brothers and sisters.  He had his early education in a normal school near his home.  He then enrolled in the New Indian School and then the Hindu School.  After completing his schooling, he enrolled in the famous Presidency College, Kolkata.  One interesting thing about him is that he continued to get the highest marks in all his exams and he continued to get first place.  Seeing his talent, people often said that he would go ahead and become a great mathematician or scientist.

 Carrier  : –

 He did M.Sc. in the year 1915.  Passed (Mathematics) examination first class.  The principal of the college, Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, was well awares of his talents, so he appointed Satyendra Nath to the post of Professor’s of Physics.  He served in this post from 1916 to 1921.  He joined the Physics Department’s at the newly established Dhaka University in 1921 as a readers.  After joining the post of lecturer at Dhaka University, he did important work in the field of physics and mathematics.  This was the time of new discoveries in physics.  Quantum theory was presented by the German physicist Max Planck.  It was in Germany it’s self that Albert Einstein proposed the “theory of relativity”.  Satyendranath Bose’s was studying and researching all these discoveries.

Discover  : –

 Satyendranath wrote a paper entitled “Plan’s Laws and Light’s Quantum” and sent it for publications in the British Journal, which was rejected by the editorials there.  After this he sent it directly to the great scientist’s Einstein.  Einstein understood it’s importances and said that this paper is an important contribution in the field of mathematics and translated it into German languages and published it in a journal called Jeet für Physik.  After this, both great scientist’s worked together on many principles.

 Meanwhile, Bose sent another paper for publication in the Physics Journal.  In this paper, error was indicated when applying the ‘Maxwell-Boltzmann rule’ to photon-like particles.  The journal did not publish this paper, and Bose once again sent this paper to Einstein.  Einstein jointly published the paper in ‘Jeet für Physique’, doing some further research on it.  This paper laid the foundation for a new branch in quantum physics called ‘Bose-Einstein Sankhyki’.  By this the properties of all types of boson particles can be detected.

 Bose then toured Europe from 1924 to 1926 where he worked with scientists such as Marie Curie, Pauli, Heisenberg and Planck.  He also met Einstein in Berlin.  After nearly two years in Europe, Bose returned to Dhaka in 1926 and applied for the post of professor at Dhaka University but was not able to fulfill his qualifications for the post due to not having a Ph.D.  .  Then on the suggestion of friends, he took a citation from Einstein on the basis of which he got this job.  Bose lived in Dhaka from 1926 to 1945.  Returning to Kolkata in 1945, he was appointed as Professor of Physics at the University of Calcutta and then retired to Calcutta University in 1956 and moved to Santiniketan.  He could not stay longer at Shantiniketan and in 1958 he had to return to Calcutta.  In the same year he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society and appointed a National Professor.  Considering his outstanding achievements, the Government of India honored him with the Padma Bhushan.

Death  : –

 He died on 4 February 1974 in Kolkata.  At that time, he was 80 years old.

 Time line (life event sequence)  : – 

 1894: Born in Kolkata

 1915: M.Sc. in Mathematics  Passed the exam in first class

 1916: Appointed as Professor of Physics at Kolkata University

 1921: Served as Reader in Physics Department of Dhaka University

 1924: Wrote the Planck’s Law and Light Quantum and sent it to Einstein

 1924–1926: Visited Europe where he worked with scientists such as Curie, Pauli, Heisenberg and Planck

 1926-1945: Worked as Professor of Physics at Dhaka University

 1945-1956: Professor of Physics in the University

 1956-1958: Chancellor of Vishwa Bharati University in Santiniketan

 1958: Fellow of the Royal Society and appointed as National Professor

 1974: He died in Kolkata on 4 February 1974

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